Most English definitions are provided by WordNet . Infant mortality was high and at birth Māori life expectancy was in the mid-20s – less than half that for non-Māori. There have increasing calls for more Aotearoa New Zealand history to be taught in schools. In traditional Māori canoes or "waka", paddlers face the direction of travel. Most of us are somewhere in between. The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. Pākehā (or Pakeha; / ˈ p ɑː k ɪ h ɑː /, Māori pronunciation: [ˈpaːkɛhaː]) is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders primarily of European descent. Get XML access to reach the best products. We are proud to make it available online. Di, Cookies help us deliver our services. To this day, the Māori term for the English language is "reo pākehā". For the article on the people, see, "The Origins of the Words 'Pakeha' and 'Kaipuke, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pākehā&oldid=993113901. The point at which European settlers in New Zealand became Pākehā—or indeed New Zealanders—is subjective. What does Pākehā mean? However, some reject it on the ground that they claim it is offensive, or they object to being named in a language other than their own. It is also sometimes claimed that pākehā means "white pig" or "unwelcome white stranger". All rights reserved. Provide us with the stories and the knowledge of the past as a weapon for us to combat the Pākehā who say that the Māori are an ignorant people. Some Pākehā-Māori had more than one stay in Aotearoa New Zealand. I think it's nice to have a name the people who live here gave you, because that's what I am." Historian Judith Binney called herself a Pākehā and said, "I think it is the most simple and practical term. The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search. This is the story of what it means to me. Māori in the Bay of Islands and surrounding districts had no doubts about the meaning of the word in the 19th century. Etymology Meaning. Past Māori and Pākehā conflict. Speaking of houses, an in-house publication by the Department of Māori Affairs, now Te Puni Kōkiri – Ministry of Māori Development, states “all Māori have some degree of non-Māori … But there are growing concerns of non-Māori appropriating the language, and not … Pākehā is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders primarily of European descent. Pākehā language learners are suspended between two wrongs: not supporting the Māori language to flourish (again) in this country, and learning before or over others for whom it is a birthright. The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. That space in between, as we navigate how we be both, and all and enough. You can also try the grid of 16 letters.  | Last modifications, Copyright © 2012 sensagent Corporation: Online Encyclopedia, Thesaurus, Dictionary definitions and more. en It is right that the elders who are withholding information be censured by us, the children, because this is a treacherous abuse of custom against us. In her book The Trial of the Cannibal Dog: The Remarkable Story of Captain Cook's Encounters in the South Seas, the anthropologist Anne Salmond recorded that tribal traditions held that Toiroa, a tohunga from Mahia, had predicted the coming of the Europeans. The term has also recently come to refer inclusively either to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. This is supposed to have led to the belief that the sailors were supernatural beings. Alison Jones is a professor at Te Puna Wānanga, the School of Māori and Indigenous Education at the University of Auckland. Change the target language to find translations. In 1966 the first encyclopedia of New Zealand was published in three thick volumes. There were also numerous settlers from Ireland and Northern and Central Europe. It came along with a vague threat: “required by ACC” (New Zealand’s Accident Compensation Corporation). Pakeha is "in common usage, but many have difficulty in defining its meaning. The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. Appropriate Pākehā practices to support the Māori approach should be incorporated. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. It has no pejorative associations like people think it does—it's a descriptive term. The official form included a place where I had to state my “Ethnicity”. In his new book, Anglican minister and historian Dr Hirini Kaa tells the 200-year story of iwi engaging with the church. ○   Lettris In 1831, thirteen rangatira from the Far North met at Kerikeri to compose a letter to King William IV, seeking protection from the French, "the tribe of Marion". As more Europeans arrived, the status of early Europeans among Māori fell and some of the early Pakeha Maori reverted to a more European existence. I have written this book for Pākehā – and other New Zealanders – curious about their sense of identity and about the ambivalences we Pākehā often experience in our relationships with Māori. Ross told Saturday Morning he only became aware of the effects of colonisation as he grew older. Pākehā Māori is a term used to describe early European settlers in New Zealand (known as Pākehā in the Māori language) who lived among the Māori.. What if we saw it as a strength, and acknowledged it as the ability to walk in both worlds, with both views, from multiple perspectives. [1]They were often welcomed, took wives and were treated as Māori, particularly in the first two decades of the 19th century. The term is commonly used by a range of journalists and columnists from The New Zealand Herald, the country's largest-circulation daily newspaper. Pākehā is a Māori language term for New Zealanders who are "of European descent". In December 1814, the Māori children at Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands were "no less eager to see the packaha than the grown folks". Ross teaches Māori language and customs and Thomas is a Pākehā lecturer of environmental studies. Company Information Who want to forget their origins, their history, their cultural inheritance – who want Maori, likewise, to deny their origins so that we can all start off afresh. It is to emphasise it." ○   Anagrams Otirā ko ā te Pākehā rākau anake e ngahoro ana ngā rau, heoi anō tā te Māori rākau i rite ki ā te Pākehā ko te kōtukutuku, arā ko te kōnini (TP 9/1903:1). He was about 17 when he first lived with Maori and about 24 … It is hard to say, since Polynesian peoples populated their islands bringing pigs with them from East Asia, but no pigs were brought to Aotearoa by them. A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Aotearoa is changing. He said "ko te pakerewha", meaning "it is the pakerewhā", red and white strangers. Every Pākehā becomes a Pākehā in their own way, finding her or his own meaning for that Māori word. ... Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Pākehā. open space or courtyard where people gather, generally in front of a main building or meeting house; forum of social life; modern meaning: the complex of buildings surrounding the courtyard and the courtyard itself. Being of Irish descent carries multiple meanings that can nourish a sense of identity, a sense of belonging, and significant relationships. Some early European settlers who lived among Māori became known as "Pākehā Māori". Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more. Many Pākehā intellectuals migrated to Britain in order to pursue their careers as this was not possible in New Zealand. The first European settlers arrived in New Zealand in the early nineteenth century, but most were missionaries, traders and adventurers who did not intend to stay permanently. Māori culture, including the identity, values, traditions, practices and beliefs of the Māori people. When I was at school it was sadly lacking, and it is still deficient. A sample of 6,507 New Zealanders found no support for the claim that the term "Pākehā" is associated with a negative evaluation. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites ! ○   Boggle. Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata. Dr Meihana was born brown, but developed autoimmune disorder vitiligo - a condition in which the skin loses its pigment cells. Meaning of Pākehā. The Importance of Race and Identity: An exploration of New Zealand Pākehā, Māori, Samoan and Chinese adolescent identity. Well-meaning Pākehā are flooding into te reo Māori classes across the country in record numbers. But Māori housing and health standards remained inferior to those of Pākehā. Recently I was talking to a friend, about the idea of feeling not Māori enough, and not Pākehā enough. The Marlborough-born lecturer in Māori history at Massey University has straddled the boundaries because of a skin condition he developed when he was young. Until some point in the mid-twentieth century most Pākehā considered themselves to be both British and New Zealanders. I don’t feel this suspension, this tension, around language in this novel – … No Māori dictionary cites pākehā as derogatory. Quicker, cheaper international travel allowed more Pākehā to visit and live in other countries, where they saw that they were different from the British and felt the need for a stronger national identity. In this extract, she writes about taking a reo-Māori immersion course at a South Auckland wānanga. In the 1986 census, over 36,000 respondents ignored the ethnicities offered, including "Pākehā", writing-in their ethnicity as "New Zealander", or ignoring the question completely. Some believe being labelled "Pākehā" compromises their status and their birthright links to New Zealand. When Europeans first arrived they rowed to shore in longboats, facing backwards. By the end of the New Zealand land wars in the mid-1860s, European government was effectively extended over the entire country, and Māori culture declined as the vast majority of Maori chose or were cajoled into adopting English language and a greater degree of Western culture. Notable expatriate Pākehā from this period include writer Katherine Mansfield and physicist Ernest Rutherford. Papa'a has a similar meaning in Cook Islands Māori. / But only exotic trees are deciduous, however the native tree that is like exotic trees is the kōtukutuku (tree fuchsia), also called the kōnini. Kennett Watkins’ painting of the death of Gustavus von Tempsky during a battle against TÄ«tokowaru at Te Ngutu-o-te-Manu, 1868. The term pākehā is also sometimes used among New Zealanders of European ancestry in distinction to the Māori term tauiwi ("foreigner"), as an act of emphasising their claims of belonging to the space of New Zealand in contrast to more recent arrivals. Meanwhile, Māori were becoming more assertive, especially about the value of their culture and their ownership over it. Recently, the word has been used to refer inclusively either to fair-skinned persons or any non-Māori New Zealander. mauri Those who prefer to emphasise nationality rather than ethnicity in relating to others living in New Zealand may refer to all New Zealand citizens only as "New Zealanders" or by the colloquial term "Kiwis". The early settler Frederick Edward Maning published two books under the pseudonym Pakeha Māori which contain many examples of how Pakeha/Maori lived. While there are Māori orientated issues and non-Pākehā orientated issues, there’ a lot of overlap – and mixed houses. ), "Cultural go-betweens, Pākehā–Māori", "John Rutherford — The “White New Zealander”", http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pākehā_Māori&oldid=494681907. The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata. English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU). There is no etymological support for this notion—like all Polynesian languages, Māori is generally very conservative in terms of vowels; it would be extremely unusual for pā- to derive from poaka. However, speakers of New Zealand English are increasingly removing the terminal "s" and treating the term as a collective noun. The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. In general, Pākehā have developed and continue to develop identities distinct from and complementary to those of their (often) British origins and those of the other Anglophone nation-states such as Australia, the United States, Canada and Ireland, as well as Māori. Pākehā Find more words! However, there were still strong ties to the "mother country" (the United Kingdom, particularly England), which were maintained well into the twentieth century. She explores what it means to be Pākehā in her new book, This Pākehā Life: An Unsettled Memoir. While some lived the rest of their lives amongst Māori, others, such as lapsed missionary Thomas Kendall, found it convenient to only briefly "go native.". Māori also used other terms such as tupua ("supernatural", "object of fear, strange being"), kehua ("ghosts"), and maitai ("metal" or referring to persons "foreign") to refer to some of the earliest visitors. There have been several dubious interpretations given to the word. English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID). In Māori, plural nouns of the term include ngā pākehā (the definite article) and he pākehā (the indefinite article). In the late nineteenth century there were some moves towards cultural nationalism, and many Pākehā began to see themselves as different from people living in Britain. Papa'a has a similar meaning in Cook Islands Māori. Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML. The more common Māori word for flea is puruhi. Sometimes the term applies more widely to include all non-Māori. What if, we flipped the not-enough-ness on it’s head, and decided we were the perfect amount of Māori and the perfect amount of Pākehā for us. However, no part of the word signifies "pig", "white", "unwelcome", or "stranger". Māori were also badly hit by the 1918 influenza epidemic, with death rates for Māori being 4.5 times higher than for Pākehā. 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