In particular, the, energy requirements of the RCF mill represent more, than 90% of the totals, with limited contribution from, the collection and sorting stages which provide the, main differences between the products. 5 0 obj 10 000 t/y or less, usually of more specialized pulp. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan desain produk dari bahan ramah lingkungan dan analisa nilai produknya dari sisi loss-profit, sehingga dapat menjadi potensi bisnis yang menguntungkan bagi produsen buku di Indonesia sekaligus terlibat dalam upaya penyelamatan lingkungan.Kata kunci: Bahan Limbah Kertas; Nilai Produk; Desain Sampul Buku Model-YRR.18. To many people, waste is known as trash, rubbish, or garbage. /StructParents 22 Part 1, Finnveden, M. Goedkoop, M. Haushild, E. G. Hertwick, P. Hof-, stetter, O. Jolliet, W. Klopffer, W. Krewitt, E. Lindeijer, R. Muller-. Assuming compliance with regulatory limits. Rather than being recycled to the same use, paper fiber is commonly “down-cycled” into products, with lower specifications than the original use. The common assumption is, that, apart from the operation of the foreground waste, management system, demand for products and services, and generation of waste are unaffected by the choice of, foreground system. cal energy and steam used in paperboard reprocessing. /Rotate 0 Chem. Data from Arena et al. Sweden and other Baltic states are already, exporting wood-fuel to countries with carbon-intensive, energy sectors as a way of reducing their nonrenewable, carbon dioxide emissions. waste reduction, reuse, recovery, recycling, source separation and composting. Moreover, future studies should examine the potential environmental benefits of different measures to make food packaging more circular. The air dispersion modelling of odours is applied to provide the OU/m3 distribution in the area of interest. explained, Management of Environmental Quality An International Journal. Interpretando os resultados da ACV para as diferentes categorias de impacto, verificou-se que a reciclagem traz grandes benefícios ambientais quando consideradas as emissões atmosféricas associadas à eutrofização, ao aquecimento global e à oxidação fotoquímica. To make it more widely accessible, this edition provides the new tool in Windows format, with greatly improved input and output features, and the ability to compare different scenarios. All of this information WASTE MANAGEMENT . Recycled, fiber (RCF) processes can be divided into two main. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] About this journal. Dr jekyll and mr hyde essay plan is it important to do sports to live a healthy lifestyle essay contoh soal essay qada dan qadar kelas 12 beserta jawaban: introduction part of research paper waste in pdf management Research on paper bangladesh dissertation book. /Type /Page If fossil fuels are the alternative energy source, incinerated paper replaces fossil fuels, and emissions of CO 2 can be decreased. Note that, since the average tropo-, spheric lifetime of all these gases exceeds the tropo-, spheric mixing time, it is not important where the, emissions occur; i.e., climate change is truly a global, impact category. small component of the total greenhouse gas emissions. (17) Clift, R.; Frischknecht, R.; Huppes, G.; Tillman, A.-M.; Weidema, G. A Summary of the Results of the Working Group on, Assessment of the Manufacturing of Totally Recycled Papers. concluded that the proposed scenario using the new recycling plant There are several indicator issues to address each aspect of sustainability and it is not easy for decision makers to understand the result due to the use of multiple indicators. Since much of this energy comes from the grid. The environmental aspects of different waste management options for paper materials are the subject of an ongoing debate. >> calculates life cycle inventory type data for the different unit processes. For various types of waste different procedures are followed to reduce the volume of waste and to manage it in a cost effective way. The review by, associated with this type of mill (Figure 6). performance of the new recycling scenario was assessed by means of LCA The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. environmental, not economic, performance. The impacts are seen to differ little, even though. Consistent, with the general approach illustrated by Figure 2, it was, assumed that there is a demand for recovered material, and that virgin and recycled materials are equivalent, substitutable products. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Climate change and energy consumption per kg of Asiago cheese was 10.1 kg CO2-eq and 70.2 MJ, respectively. Design/methodology/approach – A computer based from gate-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) model has been developed by setting up appropriate expanded system boundaries, in order to carry out the assessment in the context of the whole, This paper analyses different alternatives for solid waste management that can be implemented to enable the targets required by the European Landfill and Packaging and Packaging Waste Directives to be achieved in the Valencian Community, on the east coast of Spain. x��\Ys�F�~���#xK�Ѝ=7�Yr2ʌ��L��-I�$�@)ʯ�gk�����n�r�����ś뛶�Vy�;�}��y�)������;�_/^��s�K��꼯���ᇷw�Λ���w����Y�ބ��:�R��|�:��o�,�t��aP� ���4J{:�χ��GqO��+�)��ѽy��v�p��i)О}Y⭖%4�>�ͶZ:���S�e6W��w}�QK�����. /Rotate 0 The inventory also takes into account all the, environmental burdens related to the conditioning of, As noted above, environmental comparisons between, different products and waste management scenarios are, dominated by energy consumption and greenhouse gas, emissions. Also a framework of the systems evaluation This is why waste workers have been granted ‘key worker’ status by the UK government1, meaning they will continue to receive educational and care provision for their children during the current coronavirus crisis, The object of the study is the Italian system of plastic packaging waste recycling, active until 2001, that collected and mechanically recycled the post-consumer PE and PET liquid containers. LCA's holistic perspective of products' environmental performance makes it a key concept for environmental management in industry as well as for environmental policy-making in government. Governments around the world are introducing single-use plastics bans to alleviate plastic marine pollution. presenting information on environmental performance. burdens coming from additional functional outputs from each systems. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] endobj The 2nd edition also includes updated chapters on waste generation, waste collection, central sorting, biological treatment, thermal treatment, landfill and materials recycling. By, contrast, the landfilling (a) and energy recovery (c), scenarios have substantial avoided burdens, again, carbon-intensive because they displace energy produc-, Interventions Related to the Production o, “Average” Packaging Product Obtained from the, Recycling Chain, As Obtained from On-Site, Investigations or by Assuming Compliance with, paper and board waste from household premises (t), paper and board waste from commercial premises (t), electric energy from biogas combustion (kW h), Generation in Italy and Sweden in the Reference Period, board packaging, indicating contributions from the different stages of the recycling chain. As computing power increases, more complex computational models are utilized for biomass supply system studies. Figure 4, summarizes the expanded systems describing the three, scenarios, showing the principal avoided burdens in, Primary inventory data describing the principal op-, erations in the foreground system were obtained from, on-site investigations obtained over a period of 12, materials handled in Italy. Waste can be categorized based on material, such as plastic, paper, glass, metal, and organic waste. /Pages 2 0 R The energetic (and then environmental) saving is so remarkable, even for PE, being 40–49 MJ for the recycled polymer and about 80 MJ that for the virgin polyolefin. intensive. Practical implications – This paper may help public administrators in better understanding the suitability of using LCA when developing solid waste management strategies. These are summarized in Table 2. ABSTRAKBahan-bahan alami yang semakin terbatas, mendorong penggunaan bahan-bahan seperti bahan limbah yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan untuk bahan bangunan atau pembuatan produk. strategies throughout the world. 1 0 obj A ACV quantifica as cargas ambientais ao longo do ciclo de vida de uma atividade e está normatizada pela International Organization for Standardization (ISO) e pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT). The analysis defined and verified a suitable tool in the field, based on objective data, for comparing different coherent scenarios of waste management politics. /BS 28 0 R reduced by recycling pulper residues to the process. /Tabs /S The study confirmed the expected improvements, indicating quantitatively the lower environmental impact resulting from structural upgrade operations in a WtE plant. Res., Vol. The results confirm that material recycling may not be the best environmental, option. Avoided burdens due to energy savings, from biogas combustion have been included as “land-, filling”. Particular attention is devoted to system definition leading to rational and clear compilation of the Life Cycle Inventory, with appropriate ‘credit’ for recovering materials and/or energy from the waste. A. /Parent 2 0 R It is generally considered the best environmental management tool that can be used to move from a generic statement about the environmental benefit of a given recycling or disposal system to reach an objective quantification of its environmental sustainability. Note that the, emissions would be decreased by using renew-. Jensen, A. System boundaries and inventory of direct burdens associated with the production of testliner 1 and fluting. Analyses such as the one presented, here can be used to show how a country might modify, its energy economy to reduce dependence on fossil, carbon-based fuels. Key factors for the LCI results include what energy is replaced by incinerated waste paper, what material is replaced by recycled fibres, how the pulpwood savings are used, what external energy carrier is used for the recycling process, and what environmental burdens are associated with a change in the electricity demand. << The oldest publications found [45], from 2000, was unique to the Scopus GIS list. Solid waste generation related to each scenario with the indication of the origin of the different streams. The environmental aspects of different waste management options for paper materials are the subject of an ongoing debate. A, semidry scrubber for acid treatment, a fabric filter for, removing fly ashes, and selective catalytic reduction to, flue gas treatment. /F 4 In these cases, increased recycling will in general lead to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases. on the basis of the composition of the collected waste. one of the most important factors in waste management. These factors can be investigated for different decision contexts and from different ethical, time and geographical perspectives. The nonrenewable, summarized in Table 4. Moisture in municipal solid waste helps quicker and easier decomposition and fermentation. Areole. MATERIALS AND METHODS The household solid waste management (SWM) problem was observed and recorded during a reconnaissance visit of residential estates in Eldoret. The current hierarchy of waste management options is critically discussed, and in its place is suggested a holistic approach that assesses the overall environmental impacts and economic costs of the whole system. Different studies have arrived at different conclusions due to differences in the methods applied and assumptions made in the life cycle inventory analysis (LCI). © 2001 Procter & Gamble Technical Centres Limited. Thus recovering paper fiber and, recycling into packaging is taken to reduce the demand, for virgin fiber by the tonnage recycled, and electricity, generated from paper waste is taken to reduce output, study is to evaluate the environmental performance of, the whole Italian system for treating paper and board, packaging waste, collected from both household and, project was the Italian Consortium for Packaging (CON-, AI), which wanted to assess the environmental perfor-, mance of the current waste management system, to, compare it with possible alternative approaches and to, identify and evaluate possible improvements. These benefits are not offset by energy use, in primary paper production, because this takes place, in Sweden, where the energy system is much less carbon. Radioactive waste management is necessary to isolate radioactive waste from living things. To draw out the lessons learned from these experiences a significant part of this 2nd edition focuses on case studies - both of IWM systems, and of where LCI has been used to assess such systems. We offer a variety of trash collection and recycling services and solutions, no matter your needs. While no articles dealt directly with simultaneous use of all three methods, several acknowledged the potential of this. The calculations were made with the reasonable assumption that the final utilisation can use the virgin or the recycled polymer without any difference. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. In, each scenario, the paper waste management sites (land-, filling, recycling, combustion with energy recovery) are, located in Italy. /Parent 2 0 R It is generally, considered the best environmental management tool that can be used to move from a generic, statement about the environmental benefit of a given recycling or disposal system to reach an, objective quantification of its environmental sustainability. The first observation is that scenario c, recycling and 67% less than landfilling. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] << /Rect [44.5200004578 59.8800010681 143.2200012207 69.3000030518] SimaPro© 8.1.1 was the modelling software. The need for the extensive use of sustainability assessment as a standalone tool to evaluate the environmental, economic and social aspects of an activity be it at project, product, company or region level has resulted in the development of various methods and standards. Other approaches such as environmental impact as-, sessment must be used, in conjunction with LCA, to, describe local impacts on public health and natural. 8 0 obj (a and c) each consume 2.2 t of wood for each t of pulp, albeit from managed plantation forests; the final com-, parisons will be very different if the wood is not sourced, from sustainably managed forests. The extreme delicacy of the decision-making process to which the results have to contribute suggested increasing the reliability of the assessment conclusions by using a high quality of data and a deepened analysis of technical processes. The results show that, in a high-, carbon economy, waste paper should be viewed as a, biofuel rather than a recoverable waste material. >> The analysis here quantifies, the benefits of converting wood to paper in a low-carbon, economy and then using the postconsumer waste paper, as an energy source in a carbon-intensive economy. ref 4). A camera was used to collect and record data on the prevailing state of waste management. Scenarios a and c were represented, by the best available technologies, to represent a pos-, sible new investment in alternatives to scenario b. /Type /Page Municipal solid waste in Bangladesh contains as much as 65% of moisture, whereas it is only 23-32% in India, and 15-35% in Europe, making the waste here more suitable for composting. Responsibility for reducing waste generation generally lies with management, who decides what is brought into the The textile industry is considered as main concerns by its environmental effects and hazardous wastes. It, also shows how LCA can be used to inform policy, decisions. Figure 11 shows that, they also demand large quantities of water, category is the enhanced greenhouse effect caused by, human activities. Figure 2 embodies the approach of system expansion, recommended in ISO 14041 to avoid the problem of, allocation, i.e., the attribution of environmental inter-, ventions and impacts between the outputs or services, between three sets of environmental burdens making. It is generally considered the best environmental management tool that can be used to obtain an objective quantification of all the environmental impacts related with different solid waste management scenarios. For example, cartonboards collected from supermarkets and process, scrap from paper manufacture require no sorting, only, packing and transportation. Verificou-se que, em 2014, a coleta seletiva incluiu 11% dos RSD gerados nos distritos servidos pela unidade de triagem. This book for environmental engineers and managers, ecodesigners and students presents a broad repertoire of LCA methological alternatives, their implications and their usefulness in many different applications such as product development, marketing, production and waste management. ucts with the specific waste used for its production. /Resources 16 0 R “testliner 1” and “fluting” represent the two extremes, in the spectrum of products analyzed. Ecoinvent® v3.1 database was used for upstream processes. The reproducibility of LCAs is evaluated and reasons for possible discrepancies between LCAs are discussed. One manufacturing plant were surveyed for primary data. Perspectives on Energy and Material Recovery from Paper. Figure 12 shows the emissions of, greenhouse gases, expressed as kilograms of CO, lent for a time horizon of 100 years, for each of the paper, waste management scenarios, distinguishing between, the contributions from the different stages of the life, cycles. Para as emissões atmosféricas associadas à destruição da camada de ozônio e à acidificação, as emissões negativas relacionadas à reciclagem não foram suficientes para obter um balanço geral negativo. Therefore, banning or imposing a premium price on single-use items in general and not only single-use plastic items is a more effective method of reducing consumption and thereby pollution. They also use a wide, range of ancillary chemicals and also energy. In the past, the industrial sewage was discharged into the environment without considering its consequences. The analysis. /Resources 13 0 R It is estimated that the amount of solid waste per capita is around 500 kilograms per year. The burdens related to the, transportation of virgin fiber, from Stockholm to Rot-. The opera-, tions from entry to the foreground up to the RCF mill. Our proposed framework defines three sustainability aspects of food packaging, namely direct environmental effects of packaging, packaging-related food losses and waste, as well as circularity. The energy recovery section is, assumed to have a conversion efficiency of 27.7%, which, is high but achievable with a state-of-the-art plant. system varies according to the paper grade to be, produced and the type of waste paper used. Huge variation in the capture rates of packaging waste (paper, plastic, metal, composite material and glass) exists in Europe, even between municipalities with similar characteristics, which suggests there is great potential to increase the amount of these materials that can be recovered. /Contents 14 0 R /Rotate 0 /A 27 0 R /Contents 23 0 R LCA studies are carried out for a number, is a conventional or engineering LCA, characterized as, “a process to evaluate the environmental burdens as-, sociated with a product, process, or activity by identify-, ing and quantifying energy and materials used and, wastes released to the environment; to assess the impact, of those energy and material uses and releases to the, environment; and to identify and evaluate opportunities, international standards ISO 14040-43, the structure of, of the study, indicates the intended audience, and, describes the system studied as well as the options that, collects and analyses all the material and energy inputs. /A 29 0 R Net energy consumption related to each scenario, reported in terms of primary sources. << Waste Management, authors should consider whether the information is of potential use to solid waste researchers, practitioners and/or policymakers. This chapter discusses the needs of society: less waste, and then an effective way to manage the inevitable waste still produced. It is /Group 24 0 R Energy consumption and greenhouse gas generation of the main products commercialized in Italy for production of paper and. The work is the result of a joint research project with the Italian Consortium for Packaging (CONAI), carried out in co-operation with the main Italian companies active in the field. where the energy mix is dominated by nonfossil sources. Paper production from virgin fiber is, located in Sweden (where most of the fiber used in Italy. If the same effort that is put into flue gas treatment were devoted to energy recovery, the targets for the WtE plant could be easily met, achieving a higher sustainability. 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