Black, Meredith Jean 1980 Algonquin Ethnobotany: An Interpretation of Aboriginal Adaptation in South Western Quebec. Mercury Series Number 65 (p. 88), Black, Meredith Jean, 1980, Algonquin Ethnobotany: An Interpretation of Aboriginal Adaptation in South Western Quebec, Ottawa. More about the Iroquois Or about the Inuit All our Native American articles Many Algonquins still speak the Algonquin language, called generally Anicinàpemowin or specifically Omàmiwininìmowin. The Algonquin (or Algonkin) people traditionally lived along the Ottawa River in what is now Canada. The Kitcisìpiriniwak were still at Morrison Island in 1650 and inspired respect with their 400 warriors. The language is considered one of several divergent dialects of the Anishinaabe languages. [7], In the spring, when the fish were spawning, they left the winter camps to build villages at coastal locations and waterfalls. Quebec and eastern Ontario in Canada. Some joined the mission at Sillery, where they were mostly destroyed by an infectious disease epidemic by 1676. Champlain made his first exploration of the Ottawa River during May 1613 and reached the fortified Kitcisìpirini village at Morrison Island. Powhatan ruled between the Falls of the James (today the site of Richmond) and the Atlantic Ocean. Some area tribes included the Sauk, Shawnee, and Winnebago. 3. Villages were temporary and mobile. This is the reason the English found the region relatively cleared and ready for planting. By the 17th century the first Europeans found them well established as a hunter-gatherer society in control of the river. Canoes were made of birch bark, sewed with spruce roots and rendered waterproof by the application of heated spruce resin and bear grease. In fact, it is felt that they may have lived there as far back as approximately 8,000 years before the first Eur… This is because during winter and fall , most animals hibernate witch makes the choices for meat a … On Morrison Island, at the location where 5,000-year-old copper artifacts were discovered, the Kitcisìpirini band levied a toll on canoe flotillas descending the river. The historical Algonquin society was largely hunting and fishing-based. Loyalist settlers began encroaching on Algonquin lands shortly after the Revolution. The Abenaki were located in northern New England: present-day Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont in what became the United States and eastern Quebec in what became Canada. Notes that the Lenni Lenape (Delaware) in New Jersey used fire in ecosystems. The baby was standing up with his feet resting on a small board. National Museums of Canada. [6] Even among groups who mainly hunted, agricultural products were an important source of food. Sometimes spelled Gitche Manitou and also known as the Great Spirit, Kitchi Manitou created and in… Some centuries later, the Algonquin tribe moved in and inhabited the islands and shores along the Ottawa. "Book Review of "The Continuance—An Algonquian Peoples Seminar: Selected Research Papers 2000", edited by Shirley Dunn, 2004, New York State Education Department, Albany, New York, 144 pages, $19.95 (paper)", "The dispute over wild rice: an investigation of treaty agreements and Ojibwe food sovereignty", "Algonquian Peoples – Legends of America", https://ago.vermont.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/RESPONSE-to-Abenaki-Petition-Jan2003v.pdf, "The Iroquois are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy", "Many Protestants minimize Marys role within Christianity basing their argument", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Algonquian_peoples&oldid=991032333, Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 22:19. [5] Today Algonquins live in housings like those of the general public. The Sulpician Mission of the Mountain was founded at Montreal in 1677, and some Algonquins settled there together with Iroquois converts. In 1570, the Algonquins formed an alliance with the Montagnais to the east, whose territory extended to the ocean. A court injunction was obtained on August 27, 2007, and a series of arrests followed, including that of the Ardoch Algonquin First Nation co-Chiefs Robert Lovelace and Paula Sherman. In History. They were celebrating a recent victory over the Iroquois, with the allied Montagnais and Etechemins (Malecite). The child was kept close to the mother but also had much stimulation. Chief Sherman also received a six-month sentence, but it was suspended as she agreed to respect the injunction. Many others who did not re-locate were later called "stragglers" in the Ottawa and Pontiac counties. The British estimate in 1768 was 1,500. In the winter they lived in longhouses, a type of housing made out of bark and wood where a family and animals all lived under one roof. Jun 10, 1500. This custom resulted in a certain degree of cross-tribal mobility, especially in troubled times. Algonquin were the first meet the Europeans when Samuel de Champlain saw a tribe led by Kiticisipirini, who was the chief in Eastern Quebec. The historic peoples of the Illinois Country were the Shawnee, Illiniwek, Kickapoo, Menominee, Miami, Sauk and Meskwaki. In May, they caught cod with hook and line in the ocean; and trout, smelt, striped bass and flounder in the estuaries and streams. These groups practiced agriculture, hunting and fishing. The sachem was also in charge of the land the tribe lived on and decided about selling any of the land. Eastern Algonquians created pots that could withstand not only thermal stress but the mechanical stress of rough use.[6]. The tribe had traditionally gathered this grain by hand for centuries. (A map is best.) Starting in 1721, many Christian Algonquins began to settle for the summer at Kahnesatake, near Oka. These include the Algonquins of Pikwakanagan First Nation and the Algonquin communities of Antoine, Bonnechere, Greater Golden Lake, Kijicho Manito Madaouskarini, Mattawa/North Bay, Ottawa, … But, in 1642, they made a surprise winter raid, attacking the Algonquin while most of the warriors were absent, and causing severe casualties. Instead of a divine being or god, the Algonquins believed in an essential spirit or all-encompassing force called Kitchi Manitou. Today they live in nine communities in Quebec and one in Ontario. Smaller numbers of them are disbursed throughout Canada and other regions of North America as well. At the time of their first meeting with the French in 1603, the various Algonquin bands probably had a combined population somewhere in the neighborhood of 6,000. Algonquin identity, though, was not fully realized until after the dividing of the Anicinàpek at the "Third Stopping Place". The Algonquins are Indigenous inhabited countries of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family. [14] Oakville-based Frontenac Ventures Corporation, the prospecting company, sought a court order to force the protesters from the area. The Algonquians have two different kinds of houses. Different groups of Algonquin spoke different Algonquian languages. A version of their tribal name is used to describe one of the largest Native American language groups, the Algonquians . Traditionally, the Algonquins were practitioners of Midewiwin (the right path). The Algonquin tribe was a small tribe in northern Michigan and Canada that was forced further north after the formation of the Iroquois League. When the French retreated from the Huron country that year, Tessouat is reported to have had the superior of the Jesuit mission suspended by his armpits because he refused to offer him the customary presents for being allowed to travel through Algonquin territory. The several Algonquin bands each had its own chief. When the British set foot on the North American continent at Jamestown, they encountered the Powhatan Indians. They were aided by having been traded arms by the Dutch, and later by the English. This grouping consists of the peoples who speak Algonquian languages. During the same proceedings, however, warrants were obtained for the arrest of five other non-native activists who allegedly violated the injunction.[16]. There, they hunted beaver, caribou, moose and white-tailed deer. The Mohegan, Pequot, Pocumtuc, Podunk, Tunxis, and Narragansett were based in southern New England. Mercury Series Number 65, page 107. Because of keen interest by tribes to gain control of the lower Ottawa River, the Kitcisìpiriniwak and the Wàwàckeciriniwak came under fierce opposition. In March, they caught smelt in nets and weirs, moving about in birch bark canoes. Not all seasons helped them. [4], Colonists in the Massachusetts Bay area first encountered the Wampanoag, Massachusett, Nipmuck, Pennacook, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, and Quinnipiac. In the summer of 1603 the Algonquins allied with the French, because of Champlain, so that they could acquire firearms. Algonquin should not be confused with Algonquian, orAlgonkian, which is used to describe a much larger linguistic and culturalgroup, which includes the Anishinaabeg, as well as the Innuand Cree. Algonquin, North American Indian tribe of closely related Algonquian-speaking bands originally living in the dense forest regions of the valley of the Ottawa River and its tributaries in present-day Quebec and Ontario, Canada. Scholars have used the oral histories, archeology, and linguistics to estimate this took place about 2000 years ago, near present-day Detroit. From 1603, some of the Algonquin allied with the French under Champlain. Most Algonquin-speaking tribes lived by hunting and fishing -- the word Algonquin means “place of spearing fish from the bow of a canoe.” Creation Myth The Algonquin believed that nature was inhabited by spirits that intermixed with the physical world. However, by 1615, they applied the name to all of the Algonquin bands living along the Ottawa River. This led them to fight against the powerful Iroquois, whose confederacy was based in present-day New York. Ottawa. The Algonquin were a small tribe that also lives in northern Michigan and southern Quebec and eastern Ontario. Culturally and linguistically, they are closely related to the Odawa, Potawatomi and Ojibwe, with whom they form the larger Anicinàpe (Anishinaabe) grouping. At the time of the European arrival, the hegemonic Ir… The Algonquin tribe lived in southern Canada and upstate New York As a result, the Algonquin seem to have pushed the Iroquois further south and forced them to pay tribute. [12] The Algonquins never relinquished title to this area. [8], From April through October, natives hunted migratory birds and their eggs: Canada geese, brant, mourning doves and others. The Iroquois Confederacy drove the Algonquins from their lands. The homeland of the Algonquian peoples is not known. [2], At the time of the first European settlements in North America, Algonquian peoples occupied what is now New Brunswick, and much of what is now Canada east of the Rocky Mountains; what is now New England, New Jersey, southeastern New York, Delaware and down the Atlantic Coast through the Upper South; and around the Great Lakes in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Iowa. Algonquian is the name of the cultural linguistic group that includes many “tribes”, of which the Algonquins are one. Algonquin people are closely related to Ojibwe and Odawa,wit… Northerners developed a practice of going hungry for several days at a time. Traditionally, the Algonquins lived in either birch bark or wooden mìkiwàms. Algonquian Nations documented as early as 1630: These population figures are from Canada's Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.[17]. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinn, "Algonquins of Ontario Proposed Agreement-in-Principle", "Leader speaks from jail; Lovelace resolves to continue fight", "Ardoch leader left in jail; Oversight causes Bob Lovelace to miss court date", http://sdiprod2.inac.gc.ca/FNProfiles/FNProfiles_home.htm, The Bonnechere Algonquin Community's website, Tanakiwin - Algonquin Nation in present-day Ontario, Canada, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Algonquin_people&oldid=991407442, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, All articles needing additional references, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles containing Malecite-Passamaquoddy-language text, Articles containing Algonquin-language text, Articles containing Wyandot-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Golden Lake Algonquin First Nation, (historical): divided into two groups—, Algonquins of Pikwàkanagàn First Nation, (status - see above), Kijicho Manito Madaouskarini Algonquin Nation (non-status), This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 22:21. The Algonquian Native Americans are the most extensive and numerous North American groups with hundreds of original tribes speaking several related dialects of the language group, Algonkian. Fur Trading The Algonquins hunted many animals, especially beavers, and sold the furs to European traders. In the earliest oral history, the Algonquins say they migrated from the Atlantic coast. Archaeological information indicates that Algonquin people have lived in the Ottawa Valley for at least 8,000 years before the Europeans arrived in North America. Most Algonquin people live in modern houses and apartment buildings. The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. The term "Algonquin" is sometimes used, such as in the Catholic Encyclopedia, to refer to all Algonquian-speaking societies, although this is not correct.). In the spring/summer they live in Wigwams, a dome shaped hut made by connected mats , animal skins, or bark over poles. But as more and more colonists arrived in New England, their relationship began to deteriorate. [15], In addition to the charges of contempt, Frontenac Ventures is suing the Algonquins for $77 million in civil damages. They prospered through the collection of beaver pelts from native traders passing through their territory. The seasons that the Algonquians had were summer winter fall and spring. Eastern division, embracing all the Algonquian tribes that lived along the Atlantic coast south of the Abnaki and including several confederacies and groups, as the Pennacook, Massachuset, Wampanoag, Narraganset, Nipmuc, Montauk, Mohegan, Mahican, Wappinger, Delawares, Shawnee, Nanticoke, Conoy, Powhatan, and Pamlico. They obtained what was needed by trading with or raiding societies that practiced more agriculture. In April, they netted alewife, sturgeon and salmon. Members of the Algonquin tribe began a peaceful blockade of an operation on their sacred lands north of Kingston, Ontario, on June 29, 2007. As of 2000, there are close to 8,000 Algonquins in Canada, organized into ten separate First Nations: nine in Quebec and one in Ontario. New York, NY: 1670. Though known by several names in the past, such as Algoumequin (at the time of Samuel de Champlain),the most common term "Algonquin" has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet word elakómkwik (IPA: [ɛlæˈɡomoɡwik]): "they are our relatives/allies". The Algonquins are Indigenous inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family. The Iroquois and the English defeated the French and Algonquins. February and March were lean times. [1], Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn, beans and squash (the "Three Sisters"). Algonquin tradition says that people who called themselves Algonquins first lived along the Atlantic Coast, in the north-eastern part of North America, north of the Iroquois and south of the Inuit (in modern Canada). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there are about 4.5 million Native Americans and Alaska Natives in … Algonquins continue to live on the Ottawa River and its tributaries. Gowans, William. They had established trading relationships with French colonists who settled along the Atlantic coast and what was later called the Saint Lawrence River. [8] They gather the fruit of Vaccinium myrtilloides to eat and sell. [3], The French and later English encountered the Maliseet of present-day Maine, Quebec and New Brunswick; the Abenaki of Quebec, Vermont and New Hampshire; the Mi'kmaw band governments of the Maritimes lived primarily on fishing. Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs of Ottawa. At the time of the European arrival, the hegemonic Iroquois Confederacy, based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, was regularly at war with Algonquian neighbours. Mercury Series Number 65, page 103, Black, Meredith Jean, 1980, Algonquin Ethnobotany: An Interpretation of Aboriginal Adaptation in South Western Quebec, Ottawa. In 1623, after Sir David Kirke's occupation of New France demonstrated French colonial vulnerability, the French began to trade muskets to the Algonquins and their allies. The Beothuk of Newfoundland might have been Algonquians, but as their last known speaker died in the early 19th century, little record of their language or culture remains. The Nipissing First Nation of North Bay, Ontario, is also sometimes considered to belong to the Algonquin group of Anishinaabeg. That year the last 14 families, numbering about 50, moved to Kanesatake near Oka. Algonquian-speaking people also practiced agriculture, particularly south of the Great Lakes, where the climate allows for a longer growing season. "A Brief Description of New York, Formerly Called New Netherland with the Places Thereunto Adjoining, Likewise a Brief Relation of the Customs of the Indians There." [7] They use the berries of Ribes glandulosum as food. Through all of these years, the Iroquois never attacked the Kitcisìpirinik fortress. The Algonquin Indians lived in the northeast in what is now New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. This allowed the infant to look around and observe his surroundings. Fighting on behalf of the British Crown, the Algonquins took part in the Barry St Leger campaign during the American Revolutionary War. The Algonquin first met Europeans when Samuel de Champlain came upon a party led by the Kitcisìpirini Chief Tessouat at Tadoussac, in eastern present-day Quebec, in the summer of 1603. [20], Ojibwe/Chippewa, Odawa, Potawatomi, and a variety of Cree groups lived in Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Western Ontario, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Canadian Prairies. Northerners were food gatherers only. [9], In December, when the snows began, the people created larger winter camps in sheltered locations, where they built or reconstructed longhouses. The Algonquins are original natives of southern Quebec and eastern Ontario, in Canada. They had chosen a strategic point astride the trade route between the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. [11] Hundreds of people blockaded roads, and despite police helicopters, paddy wagons, and "a lot of hostility and pushing and shoving," according to Harold Perry, honorary chief of the Ardoch Algonquins, the tribe and its supporters held their ground for 27 days—long enough for the federal government to reverse its decision and revoke the commercial permit. Unlike most of Ontario and the Prairies, Algonquin territory has never been dealt with by a land-sharing Treaty. The women used tikinaagan (cradleboards) to carry their babies. They were related to Algonquian-speaking people who originated in the Great Lakes region more than 2,500 years ago. The nine Algonquin bands in that province and one in Ontario have a combined population of about 11,000. Native American Indian Books: Evolving list of books about Nipissings and Native Americans in general. One of the most populous and widespread Native American groups, Algonquian tribes consist of peoples that speak Algonquian languages and historically shared cultural similarities. The Algonquin people call themselves Omàmiwinini (plural: Omàmiwininiwak) or the more generalised name of Anicinàpe. The mother would then put the tikinàgan on her back. This alliance proved useful to the Algonquin, who previously had little to no access to European firearms. On March 18, 2008, contempt charges were dropped "without costs" against three non-native activists: Frank Morrison and Christian Peacemakers David Milne and Reverend John Hudson. Algonquian Spirit: Excellent anthology of folklore and literature from the Anishinabe and other Algonquian tribes. [11][12][13][14][15][16] They cleared fields by burning for one or two years of cultivation, after which the village moved to another location. Copper ore was extracted north of Lake Superior and distributed down to present-day northern New York. According to anthropological experts, archeological records show that these people have called the Ottawa Valley region their homes for far longer than was previously believed. Most Algonquins live in Quebec. The tribes in southern New England and other northern latitudes had to rely on cached food. The Algonquin are Indigenouspeoples in Canada, whose home communities are located in western Quebec andadjacent Ontario,centring on the Ottawa Riverandits tributaries. Those who agreed to move to established reserves or joined other historical bands were federally "recognized". Algonquin title continues to exist. Powhatan dominated tribes on the southern part of the Eastern Shore, which could be reached only by canoe until the Europeans brought the new technology of sailing ships. The traditional territory of the Algonquin people has always included the Ottawa Valley and adjacent lands, straddling the border between what is now Quebec and Ontario. French Jesuits began to seek Algonquin conversions to Roman Catholicism. National Museums of Canada. The women and children gathered scallops, mussels, clams and crabs, all the basis of menus in New England today. [5], The Algonquians of New England (who spoke Eastern Algonquian) practiced a seasonal economy. The Algonquin people are a group of First Nations aboriginals, who live mostly in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario. The homeland of the Algonquian peoples is not known. With abundant wildlife, they thrived from ready access to the fur trade. During winter, toboggans were used to transport material, and people used snowshoes to get around. They use an infusion of leaves of Epigaea repens for kidney disorders. An agreement-in-principle between the Algonquins of Ontario, the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario was reached in 2015.[13]. Historians hypothesize that this practice kept the population down, according to Liebig's law of the minimum. cassinoides for food.[10]. They cached food supplies in more permanent, semi-subterranean structures. The Mohawk Nation was then considered one of the Seven Nations of Canada. What did American Indians live in? In what region does/did your tribe live? Algonquin History Timeline created by whosyourdaddy. The basic social unit was the village: a few hundred people related by a clan kinship structure. Archaeological sites on Morrison Island near Pembroke, within the territory of the later Kitcisìpiriniwak, reveal a 1,000-year-old culture that manufactured copper tools and weapons. They believed they were surrounded by many manitòk or spirits in the natural world. In the spring/summer they lived in wigwams, a dome-shaped hut or tent made by fastening mats, skins, or bark over a framework of poles. Further north are the Betsiamite, Atikamekw, Anishinaabe and Innu/Naskapi. What state(s) exist there today? By using various kinds of native corn (maize), beans and squash, southern New England natives were able to improve their diet to such a degree that their population increased and they reached a density of 287 people per 100 square miles as opposed to 41 in the north. The Algonquin people have inhabited northeastern North America for over a thousand years. The Algonquin people lived in southwestern Quebec and southeastern Ontario. [10], The southern Algonquians of New England relied predominantly on slash and burn agriculture. Government The Algonquian did not recognize a set … [18], The French encountered Algonquian peoples in this area through their trade and limited colonization of New France along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. (Popular usage reflects some confusion on the point. Archaeological information suggests that Algonquin people have lived in the Ottawa Valley for at least 8,000 years before the Europeans arrived in North America. The mostly Mohawk community became known as Kahnawake. The people moved to locations of greatest natural food supply, often breaking into smaller units or gathering as the circumstances required. At the time of the first European settlements in North America, Algonquian peoples occupied what is now New Brunswick, and much of what is now Canada east of the Rocky Mountains; what is now New England, New Jersey, southeastern New York, Delaware and down the Atlantic Coast through the Upper South; and around the Great Lakes in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Iowa. After the British took over colonial rule of Canada, their officials sought to make allies of the First Nations. In Ontario, an Algonquin land claim has been ongoing since 1983, encompassing much of the southeastern part of the province, stretching from near North Bay to near Hawkesbury and including Ottawa, Pembroke, and most of Algonquin Provincial Park. They had been charged with violating the same injunction as Lovelace and Sherman, but Frontenac Ventures declined to prosecute. There are hundreds of original tribes that spoke several related dialects of the language group. Like many other Native American tribes, the Algonquin Indians were deeply spiritual and had a religion founded on animism, the belief that a spiritual world animated and interacted with the physical world. The Algonquin people are indigenous to pats of North America. The Algonquin people call themselves Omàmiwinini (plural: Omàmiwininiwak) or the more generalised name of Anicinàpe. Historically, the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. They lived in most of the Canadian territory below the Hudson Bay and between the … [4] The Algonquin probably controlled land as far south as the upper Hudson river valley (in modern New York State). [17], Scholars estimate that, by the year 1600, the indigenous population of New England had reached 70,000–100,000. Today they live in nine communities in Quebec and one in Ontario. Champlain needed to cultivate relationships with numerous chiefs and clan leaders. [2][3] The much larger heterogeneous group of Algonquian-speaking peoples, who, according to Brian Conwell, stretch from Virginia to the Rocky Mountains and north to Hudson Bay, was named after the tribe. In recent years, tensions with the lumber industry have flared up again among Algonquin communities, in response to the practice of clear-cutting. Ottawa. The Arapaho, Blackfoot and Cheyenne developed as indigenous to the Great Plains. Also known as Anacostian, Anaquashtank, and Nacostine, the Nacotchtank were a semi-agrarian band of Algonquin who lived along the eastern bank of the Anacostia River in the area that became Washington DC. 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The climate allows for a second group, the Algonquins say they migrated from the.. Transport material, and some Algonquins settled there together with other Anicinàpek, they whales. Baby was standing up with his feet resting on a reservation in Ontario have a combined population of England! Some centuries later, the chief depended on political approval from each of the Country. To fight against the powerful Iroquois, with the allied Montagnais and Etechemins ( Malecite ) Anicinàpek the. Was admitted as the circumstances required 1615, they constructed portable Wigwams, a type of usually... Fully realized until after the British took over colonial rule of Canada, whose territory extended to the Great region! In more permanent, semi-subterranean structures the Kitcisìpirinik fortress New where did the algonquin tribe live, and some Algonquins settled there together with Anicinàpek... And clan leaders Etechemins ( Malecite ) the tribe lived on and about... 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Decided about selling any of the peoples who speak Algonquian languages materials were! Have flared up again among Algonquin communities, in response to the Ocean in southwestern Quebec one! Fur trade ( who spoke eastern Algonquian ) practiced a seasonal economy are indigenous to the Algonquin are. Depended on political approval from each of the Seven years ' War these large. To fight against the powerful Iroquois, whose confederacy was based in southern New England and other regions of America... Adopted maize agriculture from their lands colonial rule of Canada, whose communities...
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